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Mars in natural colours. The data for the computer-generated image were taken with the Mars Global Surveyor in 1999
Size comparison of Earth and Mars in true color.

Mars (Middle Egyptian: Hor-dscheru or Hor-descheru "Red Horus"; Hebrewמַאְדִּים Meadim; astronomical sign: ) came into being when, during our earth evolution, when the previous world evolutionary stage, the so-called Old Moon, was repeated in an abbreviated form. The Old Moon extended to where Mars now traces its orbits, and in a certain sense Mars can be regarded as a re-embodiment of the Old Moon, on which man already had an astral body but not yet an independent I. Likewise, on Mars today, the astral sphere is not guided and soothed by an I. Hence there is much strife on Mars.

„The nature of Mars is chiefly to dry and burn, in accordance with its fiery colour, and because of its proximity to the sun, for the solar sphere lies just below it.“

Claudius Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos, Book I, The Power of the Planets

Physical composition

Planetary seal of Mars

Mars' atmosphere consists of about 95% carbon dioxide and is very thin. The atmospheric pressure is about the same as that of the Earth's atmosphere at an altitude of 35 km. The Martian surface is largely characterised by sandy rock, which is reddish in colour due to finely dispersed iron oxide. Investigations by Mars probes have shown that the vesicularly structured surface rock resembles terrestrial basalt. Rudolf Steiner assumed that Mars, similar to other planets, has a more fluid, i.e. less crystalline, but more amorphous[1] character than the Earth.

„... Mars consists, as far as one can examine it - one can never examine these things with mere physical instruments, but one must use spiritual science, spiritual observation - if one really gets to know Mars, it consists above all of a more or less liquid mass, not as liquid as our water, but, let us say, like jelly and such things. So in that way it is liquid. However, it also has solid components, but these are not like those on our Earth, but they are like the antlers or horns of animals. They form out of our earthly mass, and they also form back again. So that, of course, we must assume a quite different constitution in Mars than that of our Earth.“ (Lit.:GA 354, p. 160)

Spiritual significance of Mars

Mars is the seat of those Mars beings who excite the sentient soul (Lit.: GA 98, p. 198, GA 102, p. 59f). The Mars sphere, on the outer boundary of which the physical planet Mars makes its orbits, is the dominion of the Spirits of Motion, who were the masters of the Old Moon evolution and gave man his astral body. The leading Archangel of the Mars Sphere is Samael.

Until about the 16th century Mars was in descending development. From the impulses that Mars was able to give to the Earth and humanity up to that time, modern natural science came into being. After the Buddha had gone through his last earthly incarnation, he ascended to Mars to fulfil a new mission here. At the beginning of the 17th century, he performed an act here that has a similar significance for Mars as the Mystery of Golgotha has for the Earth. He succeeded in appeasing the Martian forces and thus began an ascending development of Mars. Thus the mission of the Buddha on Mars was fulfilled (Lit.:GA 130, p. 319ff).

In the first half of the earth evolution, when the Earth was not yet in its physical state, there was an interpenetration with the Mars forces. This gave rise to iron on Earth. In the human organism, Mars manifests itself above all through bile activity and in language through the vowel E. Of the trees, the oak in particular corresponds to Mars.

See also


References to the work of Rudolf Steiner follow Rudolf Steiner's Collected Works (CW or GA), Rudolf Steiner Verlag, Dornach/Switzerland, unless otherwise stated.
Email: URL:
Index to the Complete Works of Rudolf Steiner - Aelzina Books
A complete list by Volume Number and a full list of known English translations you may also find at Rudolf Steiner's Collected Works
Rudolf Steiner Archive - The largest online collection of Rudolf Steiner's books, lectures and articles in English.
Rudolf Steiner Audio - Recorded and Read by Dale Brunsvold - Anthroposophic Press Inc. (USA)
Rudolf Steiner Handbook - Christian Karl's proven standard work for orientation in Rudolf Steiner's Collected Works for free download as PDF.


  1. In spiritual science, non-crystalline, amorphous substances are classified as liquid elements.