Samael (Hebrew: סמאל, also Semiel, Semael, Sammane and Sammuel; etymologically mostly derived from Hebrew: סמי sami "blind") is one of the seven leading archangels who are the rulers of the 7 planetary spheres. According to Rudolf Steiner, his archangel reign lasted from 1190 - 1510 A.D. He is the ruler of the Mars sphere and is often associated with its martial aspects. In Gnostic and Kabbalistic writings, the "blind god" is often seen as a demonic entity, the prince of darkness or even Satan himself. In gnosis, Samael is also one of the three names of Yaldabaoth, the evil lion-headed creator of the material world, and is probably also connected with the passage of Mars in the first half of the Earth's development. According to Agrippa von Nettesheim, this demon is one of the "four princes of the evil spirit, corruptible in the elements"; the others are Mehazael, Azael and Azazel.
- Joseph Dan: Samael, Lilith, And the Concept of Evil in Early Kabbalah. In: AJS Review 5, 1980. S. 17-41. Online
- Gershom Scholem: Samael. In: Encyclopaedia Judaica Band 17. S. 714-715. Online in der Jewish Virtual Library
- Hermann Leberecht Strack, Paul Billerbeck: Kommentar zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud und Midrasch. München 1922. S 136–149.
- Rudolf Steiner: Aus den Inhalten der esoterischen Stunden, Band II: 1910 – 1912, GA 266b (1996), ISBN 3-7274-2662-4 English: rsarchive.org German: pdf pdf(2) html mobi epub archive.org
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