Psychiatry (from the Greek: ψυχὴ psyche "soul" and ἰατρός iatrós "doctor") is the field of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis and healing of mental disorders. It emerged as an independent field from neurology ("neural medicine"). The term was coined in 1808 by the German physician Johann Christian Reil. In Germany, a distinction is now made between doctors of neurology and psychiatrists, whereas previously doctors of psychiatry and neurology predominated.
- Bernhard D. Haage, Wolfgang Wegner: Medizin in der griechischen und römischen Antike. In: Werner E. Gerabek, Bernhard D. Haage, Gundolf Keil, Wolfgang Wegner (editors): Enzyklopädie Medizingeschichte. De Gruyter, Berlin/New York 2005, ISBN 3-11-015714-4, pp. 915–920